In recent years, the antimicrobial activity of peptides isolated from a wide variety of organs from plant species has been reported. However, a few studies have investigated the potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in fruits, especially Capsicum chinense (pepper). The present study aimed to purify and characterize peptides from Capsicum chinense fruits and evaluate their inhibitory activities against different phytopathogenic fungi and also analyze the possible mechanisms of action involved in microbial inhibition. After fruit protein extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), different fractions were obtained, named F1 to F10. Peptides in the F4 and F5 fractions were sequenced and revealed similarity with the plant antimicrobial peptides like non-specific lipid transfer proteins and defensin-like peptide. The F4 and F5 fractions presented strong antimicrobial activity against the fungus Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum , causing toxic effects on these fungi, leading to membrane permeabilization, endogenous reactive oxygen species increase, activation of metacaspase and loss of mitochondrial function.