Species of Piperaceae are known by biological properties, including antiparasitic such as leishmanicidal, antimalarial and in the treatment of schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antileishmania activity, cytotoxic effect, and macrophage activation patterns of the methanol (MeOH), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract fractions from the leaves of Piper cabralanum C.DC. The MeOH, HEX and DCM fractions inhibited Leishmanina amazonensis promastigote-like forms growth with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 144.54, 59.92, and 64.87 μg/mL, respectively. The EtOAc fraction did not show any relevant activity. The half maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC50) for macrophages were determined as 370.70, 83.99, 113.68 and 607 μg/mL for the MeOH, HEX and DCM fractions, respectively. The macrophage infectivity was concentration-dependent, especially for HEX and DCM. MeOH, HEX and DCM fractions showed activity against L. amazonensis with low cytotoxicity to murine macrophages and lowering infectivity by the parasite. Our results provide support for in vivo studies related to a potential application of P. cabralanum extract and fractions as a promising natural resource in the treatment of leishmaniasis.