Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk of opportunistic infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Anti-infective prophylaxis is a time-tested proven strategy for the prevention of these infections after SOT. Areas covered: The current recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, invasive fungal infections, and selected parasitic diseases are highlighted. Recent peer-reviewed publications on the prevention of infection after SOT were reviewed and their significance was discussed in the context of the current recommendations for preventing infectious complications. Expert commentary: The authors comment on the current approaches to infection prevention in transplant recipients, and discuss how these recommendations are implemented in their clinical practice. Notable findings published during the past year were highlighted, and their clinical significance was interpreted in the context of current recommendations. The evolution of diagnostic and immunologic assays was emphasized, with focus on their potential role in optimizing the current antimicrobial approaches to infection prevention after SOT.