Hypertension is one of the common chronic health problems in the world. Astragalus membranaceus root (AM), also known as Huangqi, is a popular medicinal herb traditionally used to reinforce vital energy and modulate hypertension. This study was to reveal the anti-hypertensive activities and mechanisms of AM in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Moreover, the presence of bioactive components in AM was further identified. We analyzed the effects of aqueous extract of AM (AME) on the regulation of blood pressure and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), the major target of anti-hypertensive drugs. Proteomic, bioinformatics, and docking analyses were performed to identify the anti-hypertensive bioactive peptides in AME. Our data showed that AME inhibited ACE activities in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 1.85 ± 0.01 μg/ml. In comparison with mock, oral administration of AME reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels in SHRs, and the level of SBP was decreased by 22.33 ± 3.61 mmHg at 200 mg/kg AME. Proteomic analysis identified that an abundant 152-amino-acid putative protein kinase fragment accounted for approximately 11.7% of protein spots in AME. AM-1 (LVPPHA), a gastrointestinal enzyme-resistant peptide cleaved from putative protein kinase fragment, inhibited ACE activities, with an IC50 value of 414.88 ± 41.88 μM. Moreover, oral administration of AM-1 significantly decreased SBP levels by 42 ± 2.65 mmHg at 10 μmol/kg. Docking analysis further showed that AM-1 docked into the active site channel of ACE and interacted with Ala-354 in the active site pocket of ACE. the ACE inhibitory effect of AM and the presence of ACE inhibitory phytopeptide in AME supported the ethnomedical use of AM on hypertension. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.