Two monoclonal antibodies--anti-zebrin I and anti-HNK-1--have been used to study the compartmentation of the mouse cerebellar cortex. As in other species, the pattern of localization of the Purkinje cell specific antigen zebrin I is confined to a subset of Purkinje cells that are organized into parasagittal bands. The basic pattern consists of two abutting paramedian bands (P1+) and up to three additional vermal bands on either side (P2(+)-P4+). This pattern is altered in the vermal regions of lobules X and VI-VII where all Purkinje cells are immunoreactive. In the hemisphere there are three additional bands present (P5(+)-P7+) plus two shorter bands in the paravermal area (P4b+ and P5a+) that extend from the paramedian lobule through the lobulus simplex. This pattern is very similar, but perhaps not identical, to that previously described for the rat. These results suggest a common mammalian plan for the expression and localization of zebrin I. By using a monoclonal antibody to an epitope associated with HNK-1, we have now identified a novel pattern of compartmentation in mouse cerebellum. The HNK-1 epitope is expressed most notably on Purkinje cells and Golgi cells. The molecular layer immunoreactivity associated with the Purkinje cell dendrites varies in intensity in a systematic and reproducible fashion. This reveals a novel cerebellar compartmentation that is sometimes complementary, sometimes overlapping, to that revealed by anti-zebrin. As a result, it is now possible to subdivide the cerebellar cortex into a still finer mosaic of antigenic patches and bands than was possible by using zebrins alone.