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Anticonvulsant activity of Nylandtia spinosa L. Dumont (Polygalaceae) aqueous and methanol leaf extracts in mice.

Authors
  • Amabeoku, Gj
Type
Published Article
Journal
Human & experimental toxicology
Publication Date
Nov 01, 2008
Volume
27
Issue
11
Pages
811–818
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/0960327108099538
PMID: 19244288
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of Nylandtia spinosa L. Dumont (Polygalaceae) were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity against tonic seizures produced in mice by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), bicuculline, picrotoxin, and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDLA). Aqueous leaf extract of N. spinosa (50-400 mg/kg, i.p.) and methanol extract (50-400 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated PTZ (95 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced tonic seizures. Doses of 400 mg/kg (i.p.) and 100-400 mg/kg (i.p.) of aqueous extract of N. spinosa significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures elicited by bicuculline (35 mg/kg, i.p.) and picrotoxin (12 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. Methanol extract (200-400 mg/kg, i.p.) and (50-400 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures induced by bicuculline (35 mg/kg, i.p.) and picrotoxin (12 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively, whereas 400 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly reduced the incidence of picrotoxin (12 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced seizures. Both aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of N. spinosa did not affect NMDLA (400 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced tonic seizures. Phenobarbitone (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonized tonic seizures induced by PTZ (95 mg/kg, i.p.), bicuculline (35 mg/kg, i.p.), and picrotoxin (12 mg/kg, i.p.) but did not affect NMDLA (400 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced seizures. Phenytoin (30 mg/kg, i.p.) did not alter the tonic seizures produced by either PTZ (95 mg/kg, i.p.), bicuculline -2-(35 mg/kg, i.p.), or picrotoxin (12 mg/kg, i.p.). The results obtained indicate that both aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of N. spinosa possess anticonvulsant property, thus justifying the use of the plant by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of epilepsy. The relatively high LD(50) of greater than 3600 mg/kg (p.o.) and 1780 mg/kg (i.p.) obtained with the aqueous extract suggest that the plant is relatively safe in mice. The phytochemical analysis carried out showed the presence of tannins, saponins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpene steroids, and cardiac glycosides in the plant material.

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