Earthworm innate immunity depends upon small and large leukocytes (coelomocytes) that synthesize and secrete humoral antimicrobial molecules (e.g. lysenin, fetidin, eiseniapore, coelomic cytolytic factor [CCF]; Lumbricin I). Small coelomocytes (cytotoxic) are positive (CD11a, CD45RA, CD45RO, CDw49b, CD54, beta(2)-m and Thy-1 [CD90]; CD24; TNF-alpha) but negative using other mammalian markers. Large coelomocytes (phagocytic) are uniformly negative. Specific earthworm anti-EFCC 1, 2, 3, 4 mAbs are negative for Drosophila melanogaster hemocytes and mammalian cells but positive those of earthworms. Coelomocytes contain several lysosomal enzymes involved in phagocytosis and a pattern recognition molecule (CCF) that may trigger the prophenoloxidase cascade a crucial innate immune response. Earthworms and other invertebrates possess natural, non-specific, non-clonal, and non-anticipatory immune response governed by germ line genes. Toll and Toll-like receptor signaling is essential for phagocytosis and antimicrobial peptide synthesis and secretion in insects and vertebrates but has not yet been shown to be essential in earthworm innate responses.