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Anticancer drugs-related QTc prolongation, torsade de pointes and sudden death: current evidence and future research perspectives.

Authors
  • Duan, Jialin1
  • Tao, Jingwen1
  • Zhai, Maocai1
  • Li, Chengpeng2
  • Zhou, Ning1
  • Lv, Jiagao1
  • Wang, Lin1
  • Lin, Li1
  • Bai, Rong3, 4
  • 1 Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China. , (China)
  • 2 Department of Cardiology, Wuhan Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Wuhan, P.R. China. , (China)
  • 3 Department of Cardiology, An Zhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P.R. China. , (China)
  • 4 Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute at St. David's Medical Center, Austin, TX, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Oncotarget
Publisher
"Impact Journals, LLC "
Publication Date
May 22, 2018
Volume
9
Issue
39
Pages
25738–25749
Identifiers
DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.25008
PMID: 29876021
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Anticancer drugs may have proarrhythmic effects including drug-induced QT interval prolongation, which is of particular importance because it can lead to a fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia termed torsade de pointes (TdP). QT interval prolongation and TdP are rare life-threatening untoward effects of anticancer therapy, particularly with arsenic trioxides and anthracyclines, and even some novel molecular targeted drugs touted as 'tumor specific'. Several factors that affect myocardial repolarization can further increase the risk of TdP. This article reviews the mechanism of QT interval prolongation, risk factors for TdP and the QT toxicity of anticancer drugs as well as its management. Specific attention should be paid to high-risk populations such as patients with underlying heart diseases, electrolyte imbalance and bradycardia. To minimize the occurrence of QT interval prolongation and TdP, it is advisable to conduct a careful risk factor assessment before antitumor therapy. To this end, several new biomarkers have been introduced to predict TdP triggering and recent studies have pointed out the potential clinical relevance of genetic testing.

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