Aggregation of hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 is the hallmark pathological feature of the most common molecular form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and in the vast majority of cases with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-TDP). However, most of the specific phosphorylation sites remain to be determined, and their relevance regarding pathogenicity and clinical and pathological phenotypic diversity in FTLD-TDP and ALS-TDP remains to be identified. Here, we generated a novel antibody raised against TDP-43 phosphorylated at serine 375 (pTDP-43S375) located in the low-complexity domain, and used it to investigate the presence of S375 phosphorylation in a series (n = 44) of FTLD-TDP and ALS-TDP cases. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated phosphorylation of S375 to be a consistent feature of pathological TDP-43 species, including full-length and C-terminal fragments, in all FTLD-TDP subtypes examined (A-C) and in ALS-TDP. Of particular interest, however, detailed immunohistochemical analysis showed striking differences in the immunoreactivity profile of inclusions with the pTDP-43S375 antiserum among pathological subtypes. TDP-43 pathology of ALS-TDP, FTLD-TDP type B (including cases with the C9orf72 mutation), and FTLD-TDP type C all showed strong pTDP-43S375 immunoreactivity that was similar in amount and morphology to that seen with an antibody against TDP-43 phosphorylated at S409/410 used as the gold standard. In stark contrast, TDP-43 pathology in sporadic and genetic forms of FTLD-TDP type A (including cases with GRN and C9orf72 mutations) was found to be almost completely negative by pTDP-43S375 immunohistochemistry. These data suggest a subtype-specific, conformation-dependent binding of pTDP-43S375 antiserum to TDP-43 aggregates, consistent with the idea of distinct structural TDP-43 conformers (i.e., TDP-43 strains) as the molecular basis for the phenotypic diversity in TDP-43 proteinopathies.