It has previously been shown that osmium tetroxide, pyridine (Os,py) and osmium tetroxide, 2,2'-bipyridine (Os,bipy) are powerful probes of the DNA structure. To increase the possibilities of the detection of osmium-modified DNAs polyclonal antibodies against DNA modified with Os,py and Os,bipy were elicited in rabbits. Specificity of these sera or purified IgG was tested by ELISA and retardation of the DNA electrophoretic mobility in agarose gels. Antibodies against DNA-Os,py (anti-DNA-Os,py) reacted with single-stranded and double-stranded DNA-Os,py but they did not react with unmodified DNA; with DNA-Os,bipy only a weak reaction was observed. The specificity of the anti-DNA-Os,bipy was similar. Competition experiments with anti-DNA-Os,py showed a weak reaction with RNA-Os,py but no reaction with osmium-modified proteins and unmodified proteins and RNA. The results suggest that anti-DNA-Os,py may become an important tool in studies of DNA structure in situ.