Immunohistochemistry is a powerful investigative tool that can provide researchers with important supplemental information to the routine morphological assessment of musculo-skeletal connective tissues in health and disease and also during tissue repair and regeneration. A wide variety of antibodies (both monoclonal and polyclonal) are now available from commercial and non-commercial sources that recognise the major structural and soluble components of cellular and extracellular matrix compartments. These include antibodies towards the major collagen and proteoglycan species and their metabolites, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, enzymes, enzyme generated neo-epitopes, growth factors, cytokines and related signalling molecules. In addition, cell surface markers, cytoskeletal components and many other cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, too numerous to mention, can also be detected. When allied with high resolution imaging modalities (e.g. confocal laser scanning microscopy) immunohistochemistry thus has the potential to reveal a wealth of macromolecular information about the complex three-dimensional composition and organisation of cellular and extracellular matrix compartments in many different connective tissue types. These technologies can also be used to quantify signal intensities and thereby facilitate numerical computation of image data.