Enolase, is a glycolytic enzyme ubiquitous in higher organisms, where it forms tissue specific dimers of isoforms, also found in the cytoplasm of fermentative bacteria. The aim of this work was to identify enolase-like proteins in the cell wall of some Gram-negative bacteria using antibodies against human beta-enolase, an isoenzyme specific to skeletal and heart muscles. Cell wall outer membrane protein (OMP) preparations were obtained from 9 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and one of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specific enzymatic enolase activity was detected in the supernatant fractions of cytosolic and inner membrane material, but not in purified OMP preparations. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human beta-enolase were prepared and purified using immobilized human beta-enolase in affinity chromatography. In SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting assay of purified OMP preparations, rabbit anti-enolase antibody interacted specifically with a few OMPs, of which a 45-kDa band also interacted with human sera of patients presenting Buerger disease and atherosclerosis. The most distinct interaction of human sera was observed with a 45-kDa OMP of Klebsiella pneumoniae. This protein was further isolated from K. pneumoniae cell mass in two ways, namely preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and specific affinity chromatography using immobilized affinity-purified rabbit antibody raised against human beta-enolase. The data obtained from tandem mass spectrometry tryptic peptide analysis and sequence comparison of human and bacterial enolases using protein databases, could reveal the similarity in the epitopes between membrane enolase-like protein from Klebsiella and human beta-enolase. The results show that the protein present in all studied strains has a common epitope on human beta-enolase. These data raise the question whether such a bacterial protein might be a marker for detecting and monitoring damage to skeletal and heart muscles.