Shellfish-growing areas in marine environments are affected by pollutants that mainly originate from land, including streams, domestic wastewater, and the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which may function as reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to identify the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance at five oyster sampling sites and 11 major inland pollution sources in the drainage basin of Kamak Bay, Republic of Korea. Culture-based methods were used to estimate the diversity and abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from oysters and major inland pollution sources. The percentages of ARB and multiple antibiotic resistance index values were significantly high in discharge water from small fishing villages without WWTPs. However, the percentages of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates from oysters were low, as there was no impact from major inland pollutants. Fourteen ARGs were also quantified from oysters and major inland pollution sources. Although most ARGs except for quinolones were widely distributed in domestic wastewater discharge and effluent from WWTPs, macrolide resistance genes (ermB and msrA) were detected mainly from oysters in Kamak Bay. This study will aid in tracking the sources of antibiotic contamination in shellfish to determine the correlation between shellfish and inland pollution sources.