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Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Pig Slurry Used to Fertilize Agricultural Fields

Authors
  • Rasschaert, Geertrui1
  • Van Elst, Daan1
  • Colson, Lander1
  • Herman, Lieve1
  • de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena Cardoso2
  • Dewulf, Jeroen2
  • Decrop, Johan
  • Meirlaen, Jurgen
  • Heyndrickx, Marc1, 3
  • Daeseleire, Els1
  • 1 (E.D.)
  • 2 (J.D.)
  • 3 Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Type
Published Article
Journal
Antibiotics
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 17, 2020
Volume
9
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9010034
PMID: 31963594
PMCID: PMC7168310
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Pig manure may contain antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria or pathogens, which may reach the environment upon fertilization. During this study, 69 antibiotic residues belonging to 12 classes were quantified in 89 pig slurry samples. These samples were also studied for the presence of Salmonella and for E. coli resistant to meropenem, colistin, ciprofloxacin, or cefotaxim. The obtained isolates were further tested for antibacterial susceptibility. No antibiotic residues were detected in four samples, whereas in the other samples, up to 12 antibiotics were found. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues were doxycycline, sulfadiazine, and lincomycin. Doxycycline was found in the highest concentration with a mean of 1476 µg/kg manure (range: 18–13632 µg/kg). Tylosin and oxytetracycline were found with mean concentrations of 784 µg/kg (range: 17–5599 µg/kg) and 482 µg/kg (range: 11–3865 µg/kg), respectively. Lincomycin, had a mean concentration of 177 µg/kg manure (range: 9–3154 µg/kg). All other 18 antibiotic residues were found with mean concentrations of less than 100 µg/kg manure. Fifty-one slurry samples harbored Salmonella ; 35% of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to a panel of 14 antibiotics, whereas the other 65% were resistant up to five antibiotics. For E. coli , 52 manure samples contained E. coli isolates which were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 22 resistant to cefotaxime. All ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime-resistant isolates were multi-resistant, with resistance up to nine and eight antibiotics, respectively. This research indicates that pig slurry used for fertilization often contains antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including pathogens.

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