The aim of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is the prevention of surgical site infections and urinary tract infections during urological procedures. The indication for antibiotic prophylaxis comprises several risk factors such as the degree of contamination of the operative site, duration of surgery, implantation of devices and comorbidities of the individual patient. In general this involves a single antibiotic administration before the operative procedure. The antibiotic prophylaxis is part of the total antibiotic consumption and thus a factor contributing to emergence of antibiotic resistance. It is not a substitute for hygiene measures or operative precision.