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The antibacterial activity of Libanstin from Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate).

  • El-Sawalhi, Sabah1
  • Fayad, Elie1
  • Porras, Gina2
  • Fayad, Antoine Abou3
  • Abdel-Massih, Roula M4
  • 1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, University of Balamand, Lebanon. , (Lebanon)
  • 2 Center for the Study of Human Health, Emory University College of Arts and Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
  • 3 Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Center for Infectious Diseases Research (CIDR), American University of Beirut, Lebanon; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Bacterial Pathogens in Lebanon. , (Lebanon)
  • 4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, University of Balamand, Lebanon. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Lebanon)
Published Article
Publication Date
Jun 14, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2021.104962
PMID: 34139315


Infectious diseases are reported to be one of the major causes of death in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns of an increase in the deaths number because of antibacterial resistance. Lately, a trend towards searching for new active antibacterial compounds in plants has been observed. Ilex paraguariensis, known as Yerba Mate, is a plant known to be rich in numerous bioactive compounds that have an important role in human health. In this study, Yerba Mate was extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and further fractionated with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The obtained fractions were tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella species. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values on S. aureus ranged from 1.56 to 3.12 mg/mL for both the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions. Whereas for the water fraction, the MIC values ranged from 0.78 to 3.12 mg/mL on S. aureus and ranged from 1.56 mg/mL to 3.12 mg/mL on Salmonella species. The aqueous fraction was further treated with different enzymes to mimic in vivo digestion and the fractions obtained were then tested for antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the Yerba Mate aqueous fraction was run on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and collected fractions were tested for antibacterial activity, to identify the active metabolite. Fraction 3 was tested on different strains of S. aureus and the MIC values ranged from 0.19 to 1.56 μg/mL. A novel pyrazinone, Libanstin, from Ilex paraguariensis was identified using NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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