For decades, Spergularia marina, a local food that is popular in South Korea, has been regarded as a nutritious source of amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. While several halophytes are reported to possess distinct bioactivities, S. marina has yet to be promoted as a natural source of bioactives. In this study, the effects of S. marina on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and C2C12 myoblast cells were evaluated. The anti-adipogenic effect of S. marina was assessed by measuring lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation marker expression. S. marina treatment significantly reduced lipid accumulation and notably decreased the gene levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c. In addition, S. marina enhanced osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and increased levels of osteoblastogenesis indicators, namely bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin, and type I collagen. In conclusion, S. marina could be a source of functional food ingredients that improve osteoporosis and obesity. Further studies, including activity-based fractionation, will elucidate the mechanism of action and active ingredients of S. marina, which would provide researchers with a better understanding of the nutraceutical and therapeutic applications of S. marina.