The effect of the anthropometric characteristics on performances has been the subject of many studies (Reilly, T., Bangsbo, J., & Franks, A. (2000). Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. Journal of Sports Science, 18(9), 669–683) but performance also depends on different physiological parameters. The aim of the present study is to define the anthropometric and physiological variables that best predict performance time of 100 m freestyle swimming. Twenty-five competitive male swimmers (age: 15 ± 1.2 years) participated in the research. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that arm span is the best predictor of 100 m freestyle swimming performance (r = 0.835). Arm span explains 68.5% of the variance of dependent variable (Adj R2: 0.685). In the final model, the variables that best describe 100 m freestyle swimming are the number of strokes of 100 m freestyle swimming, triceps skinfold, pelvis and shoulders width (Adj R2: 0.882). These findings confirm the importance of the anthropometric variables for swimming performance and could help coaches in the selection of high-level athletes.