AbstractThe anthropogenic impact on the Earth’s climate system is currently one of the main factors determining climate change over all spatial scales, from local to global. Many scientific investigations have been devoted to the direct and indirect influence of various types of human activity on the state of the Earth’s climate system (ECS). Feedbacks that enhance or weaken anthropogenic effects during global warming have been studied in sufficient detail with the help of climate models. Regional models of climatic and meteorological processes that make possible detailed description of the climate properties in urban agglomerations and the role of feedbacks in the development of mesoscale atmospheric processes have been widely developed in recent years. This review is devoted to the description and analysis of mesoscale feedbacks in the climate system, including the energy consumption of an urban economy, which depends on climatic and weather conditions, and the role of these feedbacks in the formation and dynamics of the urban climate and the needs of an urban economy in regards to energy supply.