Phenotype and allele frequencies for hemoglobin types (Hb beta), acid phosphatase (AcP), phosphoglucomutase (PGM1 and PGM2), esterase D (EsD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), glyoxalase I (GLO), superoxide dismutase (SOD A), and adenylate kinase (AK) as well as for haptoglobins (Hp), group-specific component (Gc), transferrin (Tf), Gm, and Inv groups and albumin, are reported in the Mbugu, Sango, Yakpa, and Baya Mandja ethnic groups in the Basse Kotto district of the Central African Republic. The total sample size amounts to 133 males and 128 females aged from 16 to 60, unrelated and healthy. A new albumin variant (albumin Mbugu) is described and discussed. The average heterozygosity is high in each group because of a high degree of exogamy. the FST average standardized value among the four groups indicates that the genetic differentiation in Basse Kotto is at level of about 2%. This indicates that the four examined groups might be considered genetically homogeneous, in spite of their different ethnic origins. The genetic distances among the four groups show that only the Baya Mandja are less closely related to the other three groups because of their foreign origin.