We investigated the expression of annexin-1 (ANXA1) in thyroid carcinoma cell lines and in thyroid cancers with a different degree of differentiation. The highest level of ANXA1 expression examined by Western blotting was detected in the papillary carcinoma cells (NPA) and in the follicular cells (WRO). On the other hand, the most undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells (ARO and FRO) presented the lowest level of ANXA1 expression. In surgical tissue specimens from 32 patients with thyroid cancers, we found high immunoreactivity for ANXA1 in papillary (PTC) and follicular (FTC) thyroid cancers while in undifferentiated thyroid cancers (UTC) the expression of the protein was barely detectable. Control thyroid tissue resulted positive for ANXA1. In summary, 70% of UTC examined weakly expressed ANXA1, whereas 65% of PTC or FTC specimens tested showed high expression of the protein. Thus ANXA1 expression may correlate with the tumorigenesis suggesting that the protein may represent an effective differentiation marker in thyroid cancer.