To determine the role of anion exchanger 3 (AE3) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in nerve injury-induced chronic nociception in the rat. Spared nerve injury (SNI) was used to induce neuropathic pain. Von Frey filaments and Hargreaves test were used to assess tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Drugs were given by intrathecal administration. Western blotting was used to determine AE3 expression in DRG. SNI produced long-lasting mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. AE3 was found in DRG of sham-operated rats. SNI enhanced baseline AE3 expression in L4 and L5 DRGs at days 7 and 14, respectively. In contrast, SNI did not affect AE3 expression in L6 DRG. AE3 expression returned to baseline levels 21 days after SNI. Intrathecal 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) (5-50 μg) pretreatment prevented SNI-induced allodynia and, at a lesser extent, hyperalgesia. Moreover, DIDS (50 μg) reduced SNI-induced AE3 upregulation in L4, but not L5, DRGs. Intrathecal DIDS (5-50 μg) or anti-AE3 antibody (1 μg), but not vehicle, post-treatment (6 days) partially reversed SNI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. DIDS or anti-AE3 antibody post-treatment diminished SNI-induced AE3 upregulation in L4 and L5 DRGs. Data suggest that AE3 is present in DRG and contributes to mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.