Hypogonadism is the clinical syndrome associated with low testosterone secretion in men. Hypogonadism affects ~37–57% men with diabetes mellitus (1). Male reproduction is orchestrated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which regulates the biosynthesis of testosterone from the testes. Diabetes may cause hypogonadism through multiple mechanisms including suppression of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, or direct disruption of spermatogenesis (2). Clinical stigmata of hypogonadism include reduced libido, erectile dysfunction (ED) and reduced physical strength. This article will summarize the evidence from animal models including how diabetes affects male reproductive endocrine function and predisposes to hypogonadism.