We determined the physiological importance of endogenous estrogen in the regulation of angiotensinogen synthesis in the liver. The plasma levels of angiotensinogen and hepatic levels of angiotensinogen mRNA were studied in the rat in comparison to those of T-kininogen, a plasma protein whose synthesis in the liver is primarily estrogen-dependent. Plasma levels of T-kininogen and hepatic levels of T-kininogen mRNA were 3- and 2-fold higher in adult females, respectively, than in adult males, whereas there were no sex differences in levels of either plasma angiotensinogen or hepatic angiotensinogen mRNA. Ovariectomy in female rats abolished the sex differences in the levels of plasma T-kininogen and hepatic T-kininogen mRNA, but it did not affect those of plasma angiotensinogen and hepatic angiotensinogen mRNA. These results suggest that, in contrast to T-kininogen, angiotensinogen synthesis in the liver is unlikely to be controlled by endogenous levels of estrogen.