Angiogenesis contributes to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes inflammation, fibrosis, and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a key regulator of angiogenesis. We aimed to investigate the role of Ang-2 and its potential as a therapeutic target in NASH using human samples, in vivo mouse models, and in vitro assays. Serum Ang-2 levels were determined in 104 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and concomitant liver biopsy. The effect of the Ang-2/Tie2 receptor inhibiting peptibody L1-10 was evaluated in the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) and streptozotocin-western diet nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mouse models, and in vitro on endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The hepatic vasculature was visualized with µCT scans and scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts. Serum Ang-2 levels were increased in patients with histological NASH compared with patients with simple steatosis and correlated with hepatic CD34 immunoreactivity as a marker of hepatic angiogenesis. Serum and hepatic Ang-2 levels were similarly increased in mice with steatohepatitis. Both preventive and therapeutic L1-10 treatment reduced hepatocyte ballooning and fibrosis in MCD diet-fed mice and was associated with reduced hepatic angiogenesis and normalization of the vascular micro-architecture. Liver-isolated endothelial cells and monocytes from MCD-fed L1-10-treated mice showed reduced expression of leukocyte adhesion and inflammatory markers, respectively, compared with cells from untreated MCD diet-fed mice. In the streptozotocin-western diet model, therapeutic Ang-2 inhibition was able to reverse NASH and attenuate HCC progression. In vitro, L1-10 treatment mitigated increased cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated endothelial cells but not in macrophages. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence for Ang-2 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to target pathological angiogenesis in NASH. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.