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Androgen receptor levels are upregulated by Akt in prostate cancer.

Authors
  • Ha, Susan
  • Ruoff, Rachel
  • Kahoud, Nicole
  • Franke, Thomas F
  • Logan, Susan K
Type
Published Article
Journal
Endocrine Related Cancer
Publisher
Bioscientifica
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2011
Volume
18
Issue
2
Pages
245–255
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1530/ERC-10-0204
PMID: 21317204
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Multiple lines of evidence suggest a functional link between the androgen receptor (AR) and the serine/threonine kinase Akt in the development and progression of prostate cancer. To investigate the impact of Akt activity on AR homeostasis, we treated androgen-dependent LNCaP and LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells with Akt inhibitor. Akt inhibition decreased AR expression, suggesting that Akt activity was required for regulation of AR protein levels. However, while androgen-independent LNCaP-abl cells also showed diminished AR protein levels in response to Akt inhibition, treatment of androgen-independent LNCaP-AI cells failed to alter AR protein levels upon similar treatment, suggesting that AR protein levels in these androgen-independent prostate cells were regulated by mechanisms independent of Akt activation. Regulation of AR, downstream of activated Akt, also was observed in vivo when examining transgenic mice that overexpress constitutively active mutant myristoylated (myr)-Akt1 in the prostate. Transgenic mice expressing activated myr-Akt1 exhibited higher levels of AR mRNA and protein. Expression of activated myr-Akt1 did not alter prostate cell growth and no significant size differences between prostate tissues derived from transgenic animals were observed when comparing transgenic mice with wild-type mice. Still, transgenic mice overexpressing Akt exhibited higher levels of γH2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 in prostate tissue. These changes in markers associated with oncogene-induced senescence confirmed significant altered signaling in the transgenic mouse model. Overall, results presented here suggest that AR levels are regulated by the Akt pathway.

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