Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays a central role in tissue remodeling and cell invasion. In the present study, we examined the expression of uPA in the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU-145 and PC-3. In contrast to DU-145 and PC-3, the androgen-responsive cell line LNCaP does not express uPA. However, seeding LNCaP cells on fibronectin-coated plates stimulated a low level of uPA expression which was further induced upon exposure of the cells to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Concomitant with the expression of uPA, an androgen-regulated expression of uPA receptor (uPAR) was induced. These results suggest that the interaction of LNCaP cells with the extracellular matrix plays a dominant role in the androgen control of uPA and uPAR gene expression.