Two patients, aged 8 weeks and 5 years, with D transposition of great arteries and large ventricular septal defect were treated by transection of both aorta and pulmonary arteries and reattaching them to the appropriate ventricles. This included the origins of the coronary arteries. The ventricular septal defect was closed through a transverse ventriculotomy using a Dacron patch. The younger child was operated on as an emergency because of cyanosis and severe heart failure resistant to intensive medical treatment. The older child had had previous banding of the pulmonary artery at the age of 1 year. In both patients pulmonary artery pressure dropped to below half systemic pressure immediately after the operation. Postoperative progress was satisfactory with relief of cyanosis and heart failure. Early anatomical correction of transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect is feasible and should play an important part in the management of these patients.