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Analysis of willingness to pay for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.

Authors
  • Nowakowska, Dominika
  • Guertin, Jason R
  • Liu, Aihua
  • Abrahamowicz, Michal
  • Lelorier, Jacques
  • Lespérance, François
  • Brophy, James M
  • Rinfret, Stéphane
Type
Published Article
Journal
The American Journal of Cardiology
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2011
Volume
107
Issue
3
Pages
423–427
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.09.041
PMID: 21257009
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Despite being effective in the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest, the cost-effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy remains debated. We attempted to estimate the value ICD recipients place on their ICD device. We used the contingent valuation method to evaluate the willingness to pay (WTP) and the cost benefit of ICD therapy in an unselected population of 237 recipients. A hypothetical scenario was presented to patients in which at the end of their current ICD no public reimbursement for the replacement would occur. Patients were asked to indicate their out-of-pocket WTP for a replacement ICD using a close-ended question format. Seven different "take-it-or-leave-it" bids were randomly varied and assigned to patients. Median WTP was calculated with nonparametric methods, and multiple logistic regression models were generated to identify factors associated with WTP. Only cost of the device was considered. Median WTP was estimated at CAN $4,125, which corresponds to 21% of the cost of the device (CAN $20,000). In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher bid (odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 0.99, per CAN $1,000 increase) was associated with a lower WTP, whereas a higher gross family income (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.0) and higher education (OR 2.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.1) were associated with a trend for higher WTP. In conclusion, ICD recipients would be willing to pay a substantial amount for a replacement ICD. Considering the expensive price of the device, ICD recipients value favorably the benefits provided by the ICD.

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