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An analysis of visual oddity concept learning in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)

Authors
  • Hille, Petra1
  • Dehnhardt, Guido2
  • Mauck, Björn2
  • 1 Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany , Münster (Germany)
  • 2 Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Allgemeine Zoologie & Neurobiologie, Bochum, ND6/33, D-44780, Germany , Bochum (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Learning & Behavior
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
May 01, 2006
Volume
34
Issue
2
Pages
144–153
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3758/BF03193190
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

We tested a California sea lion for visual oddity learning by presenting problems composed of three two-dimensional black-and-white stimuli, two identical (S−) and one different (S+). In the first experimental stage, a single problem per session was presented until learning criterion was reached. In the second experimental stage, all problems were presented only five times in succession; then a new problem was introduced (six problems/session). In the third experimental stage, each problem was presented only once. The sea lion mastered all stages of oddity learning. A final transfer test with oddity problems composed of completely new stimuli yielded performance significantly above chance. Data analyses suggested learning of specific stimulus properties in the first stage, learning set formation in the second stage, but oddity conceptualization in the third stage.

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