Early childhood care and education are not separate issues, but must be considered holistically. The Japanese government started to accredit and promote integrated institutions called Kodomo-en. In order to make political decisions to locate institutions, the provision of the services in local areas needs to be examined. The present study reports the results of experimental and comparative research analyzing how the services are distributed in Akiotacho (an under-populated, intermediate and mountainous area) and Hakataku (an urban area) in Japan. Using a spatial information system, information about the location of the institutions, the distribution maps of the 0–5 year-old population, and characteristics of services provided were computerized. The results made it clear that in Akiotacho, the biggest problem for services was accessibility; the opportunity to get services in convenience. In Hakataku, the main problem was the limited nature of services owing to density of population. In addition, though there are many institutions in Hakataku, it was made clear that the characteristics of services provided in the area are limited even compared to Akiotacho. Our study suggests that more policy studies should be promoted specially dealing with integration and that aspects from local should be promoted.