Helicobacter pylori persistently infects the human stomach and can cause gastritis, gastric ulceration, and gastric cancer. The type IV secretion system (TFSS) of virulent H. pylori strains translocates the CagA protein, inducing the dephosphorylation of host cell proteins and leading to changes in the morphology or shape of AGS gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, the TFSS is involved in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. While the H. pylori genes required for TFSS function have been investigated systematically, little is known about possible host cell factors involved. We infected 19 different mammalian cell lines individually with H. pylori and analyzed CagA translocation, dephosphorylation of host cell proteins, chemokine secretion (interleukin-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2), and changes in cellular phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that not only bacterial but also host cell factors determine the cellular response to infection. The identification of such unknown host cell factors will add to our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and might help in the development of new therapeutic strategies.