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Analysis of Nitrosamines in Cooked Bacon by QuEChERS Sample Preparation and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Backflushing.

Authors
  • Lehotay, Steven J1
  • Sapozhnikova, Yelena1
  • Han, Lijun1, 2
  • Johnston, John J3
  • 1 Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture , 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, United States. , (United States)
  • 2 College of Science, China Agricultural University , 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China. , (China)
  • 3 Food Safety and Inspection Service, Office of Public Health Science, U.S. Department of Agriculture , 2150 Centre Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526, United States. , (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Dec 02, 2015
Volume
63
Issue
47
Pages
10341–10351
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04527
PMID: 26542769
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which is mitigated by the addition of antioxidants. In the past, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) monitored NAs in pan-fried bacon, but FSIS terminated monitoring of NAs in the 1990s due to the very low levels found. FSIS recently chose to conduct a risk assessment of NAs in cooked bacon to determine if current levels warrant routine monitoring of NAs again. To meet FSIS needs, we developed, validated, and implemented a new method of sample preparation and analysis to test cooked bacon for five NAs of most concern, which consist of N-nitroso-dimethylamine, -diethylamine, -dibutylamine, -piperidine, and -pyrrolidine. Sample preparation was based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach and analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ruggedness was improved markedly in the analysis of the complex fatty extracts by backflushing the guard column, injection liner, and half of the analytical column after every injection. Validation results were acceptable with recoveries of 70-120% and <20% RSDs for the five NAs, with a reporting limit of 0.1 ng/g. NA concentrations in 48 samples were all <15 ng/g, with most <1 ng/g and many <0.1 ng/g. Also, microwave cooking of bacon gave slightly lower concentrations overall compared to pan-frying.

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