Pigeons have the ability to produce milk and feed their squabs. The genetic mechanisms underlying milk production in the crops of &rsquo / lactating&rsquo / pigeons are not fully understood. In this study, RNA sequencing was employed to profile the transcriptome of lncRNA and mRNA in lactating and non-&lsquo / lactating&rsquo / pigeon crops. We identified 7066 known and 17,085 novel lncRNAs. Of these lncRNAs, 6166 were differentially expressed. Among the 15,138 mRNAs detected, 6483 were differentially expressed, including many predominant genes with known functions in the milk production of mammals. A GO annotation analysis revealed that these genes were significantly enriched in 55, 65, and 30 pathways of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions, respectively. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 12 pathways (involving 544 genes), including the biosynthesis of amino acids, the propanoate metabolism, the carbon metabolism and the cell cycle, were significantly enriched. The results provide fundamental evidence for the better understanding of lncRNAs&rsquo / and differentially expressed genes&rsquo / (DEGs) regulatory role in the molecular pathways governing milk production in pigeon crops. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide investigation of the lncRNAs in pigeon crop associated with milk production. This study provided valuable resources for differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs, improving our understanding of the molecular mechanism of pigeon milk production.