The physician assistant (PA) is a relatively new medical specialty that developed to manage the shortage of resident physicians and to ensure that patients receive high-quality health care in today's increasingly complex and demanding medical environment. PAs in Taiwan are not governed by laws and regulations, and the absence of legislation to define their roles and responsibilities can lead to confusion in the work environment and potential communication barriers with coworkers and supervising physicians. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the environmental and sociodemographic factors that influence job satisfaction and job-related communication among PAs in Taiwan. The data source, a self-administered mail survey, was sent to 196 PAs working within medical facilities in northern, central, and southern Taiwan. The response rate to the survey was 71.01%. There was a strong correlation between communication satisfaction and job satisfaction among respondents. The PAs' overall position in the hospital, relationships with coworkers (doctors, nurses, and other medical staff), and ability to perform his or her duties while working with the supervising physician were the major environmental factors that influenced job and communication satisfaction. In addition, the number of working years and marital status were important demographic factors influencing job satisfaction. Demographic and environmental factors influencing job satisfaction are analyzed, and ways in which the roles and responsibilities of PAs can be clarified, strengthened, and improved are discussed in an overall effort to provide management strategies for the current PA system in Taiwan.