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Analysis of inflammatory periimplant lesions during a 12-week period of undisturbed plaque accumulation--a comparison between flapless and flap surgery in the mini-pig.

Authors
  • Mueller, Cornelia K
  • Thorwarth, Michael
  • Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan
Type
Published Article
Journal
Clinical Oral Investigations
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2012
Volume
16
Issue
2
Pages
379–385
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00784-011-0546-7
PMID: 22186942
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

This study's aim was to clarify the influence of soft tissue management on the development of periimplant infection. Four weeks after removal of all maxillary premolars in 12 mini-pigs, four BEGO Semados RI implants were inserted in each maxillary quadrant. Employing a split-mouth design, one quadrant was randomized to flapless insertion while the contralateral side was chosen for flap surgery. Following 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks of transmucosal implant, healing biopsies were retrieved from the periimplant soft tissue and subjected to further analysis. Histomorphometrically, a significant reduction of transmigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (week 1, p = 0.007; week 2, p = 0.021; week 4, p = 0.023; week 12, p = 0.013) as well as the density of the subepithelial inflammatory infiltrates (week 1, p = 0.007; week 2, p = 0.046; week 4, p = 0.003; week 12, p = 0.032) was verified following flapless surgery. Quantification of inducible nitric oxide synthase showed significantly reduced expression in the flapless group 2 (p = 0.027), 4 (p = 0.005) and 12 (p = 0.004) weeks post-insertion. Analysis of CD31 and collagen I immunostained sections revealed more regular capillary distribution as well as higher vessel and collagen density in the flapless group. The data of the present study indicate that flapless placement reduces the incidence of inflammatory periimplant soft tissue lesions during a 12-week period. Considering the beneficial effects of flapless placement on early soft tissue healing and stability, the technique might be preferred in case of an uncomplicated locoregional anatomy with sufficient hard and soft tissue. However, this positive effect might disappear after manipulation of the implant and soft tissue during impression taking or try in of the prosthodontic supraconstruction.

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