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Analgesic effects of chemically synthesized NOD1 and NOD2 agonists in mice.

Authors
  • Sato, Tadasu
  • Shikama, Yosuke
  • Shimauchi, Hidetoshi
  • Endo, Yasuo
  • Takada, Haruhiko
Type
Published Article
Journal
Innate immunity
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2011
Volume
17
Issue
1
Pages
54–59
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/1753425909351904
PMID: 20083500
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, NOD1 and NOD2, recognize the diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-containing peptide moiety and muramyldipeptide (MDP) moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan, respectively. Muramyldipeptide has been reported to exert analgesic activity to decrease the frequency of acetic acid-induced writhing movements in mice. In this study, we demonstrated the analgesic activities of NOD1 as well as NOD2 agonists. Intravenous injection of NOD2-agonistic MDP, 6-O-stearoyl-MDP (L18-MDP), and MDP-Lys (L18) exhibited analgesic activity at 10, 50, and 2.0 µg/head, respectively, in BALB/c mice. NOD1-Agonistic FK156 (D-lactyl-L-Ala-D-Glu-meso-DAP-L-Gly) and FK565 (heptanoyl-D-Glu-meso-DAP-D-Ala) were also analgesic at 50 µg/head and 1.0 µg/head, respectively. The analgesic effect of FK565 appeared from 30 min, reached maximum activity at 8 h, and continued until 24 h. The FK565 exhibited activity by various administration routes; intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, sublingual (1.0 µg/head each), subcutaneous, intragastric (oral), intragingival (10 µg/ head each) and intracerebroventricular (0.01 µg/head). The analgesic activity of FK565 was observed even in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α knockout, interleukin (IL)-1α/β double knockout, and their triple knockout mice. Naloxane, a non-selective antagonist for the opioid receptor, completely inhibited the analgesic effect of FK565. These findings suggest that NOD1 and NOD2 activation induces an analgesic effect via opioid receptors in a TNF-α and IL-1α/β independent manner.

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