This paper reports the discovery of anaerobic respiration on tellurate by bacteria isolated from deep ocean (1,543 to 1,791 m) hydrothermal vent worms. The first evidence for selenite- and vanadate-respiring bacteria from deep ocean hydrothermal vents is also presented. Enumeration of the anaerobic metal(loid)-resistant microbial community associated with hydrothermal vent animals indicates that a greater proportion of the bacterial community associated with certain vent fauna resists and reduces metal(loid)s anaerobically than aerobically, suggesting that anaerobic metal(loid) respiration might be an important process in bacteria that are symbiotic with vent fauna. Isolates from Axial Volcano and Explorer Ridge were tested for their ability to reduce tellurate, selenite, metavanadate, or orthovanadate in the absence of alternate electron acceptors. In the presence of metal(loid)s, strains showed an ability to grow and produce ATP, whereas in the absence of metal(loid)s, no growth or ATP production was observed. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone depressed metal(loid) reduction. Anaerobic tellurate respiration will be a significant component in describing biogeochemical cycling of Te at hydrothermal vents.