The insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH or lindane), which has been extensively used for agricultural and medical purposes, presents high persistence and toxicity to the environment and low solubility. This study intends to assess the efficiency of an anaerobic reactor to degrade HCH isomers contained in soil slurry cultures. This study was developed in two phases: experiments in flasks to optimize the process parameters, and assessment of the slurry process in the anaerobic slurry reactor operated for an approximate period of a year. The influence of different environmental conditions was evaluated: the HCH concentration (25-100 mg HCH kg-1), the type of substrate (volatile fatty acids or starch), the sludge concentration (2-8 g VSS l-1) and the replacement of spiked soil to simulate a fed-batch operation (10-50%). The best results were obtained when the reactor was operated with a sludge concentration of 8 g VSS l-1, starch concentration of 2 g COD l-1 and soil replacements of 10-20%. Under these conditions, alpha- and gamma-HCH were completely degraded after 10d while nearly 90% beta- and delta-HCH were removed only after 50 d. According to the obtained results related to the total degradation of the HCH isomers and the degradation rates, especially high for alpha- and gamma-HCH, the anaerobic slurry reactor appears to be a good alternative for the degradation of the HCH isomers present in polluted soil.