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Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by marine and freshwater planctomycete-like bacteria

  • Jetten, M. S. M.1, 2
  • Sliekers, O.2
  • Kuypers, M.3
  • Dalsgaard, T.4
  • van Niftrik, L.2
  • Cirpus, I.2
  • van de Pas-Schoonen, K.1
  • Lavik, G.3
  • Thamdrup, B.5
  • Le Paslier, D.6
  • Op den Camp, H. J. M.1
  • Hulth, S.7
  • Nielsen, L. P.8
  • Abma, W.9
  • Third, K.10
  • Engström, P.7
  • Kuenen, J. G.2
  • Jørgensen, B. B.3
  • Canfield, D. E.5
  • Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.11
  • And 7 more
  • 1 KU Nijmegen, Department of Microbiology, Toernooiveld 1, Nijmegen, NL 6525 ED, The Netherlands , Nijmegen
  • 2 TU Delft, Department of Biotechnology, Delft, The Netherlands , Delft
  • 3 MPI Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany , Bremen
  • 4 NERI, Silkeborg, Denmark , Silkeborg
  • 5 University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Biology, Odense, Denmark , Odense
  • 6 Genoscope, Evry, France , Evry
  • 7 Goteborg University, Department of Analytical and Marine Chemistry, Goteborg, Sweden , Goteborg
  • 8 Aarhus University, Department of Ecology, Aarhus, Denmark , Aarhus
  • 9 Paques BV, Balk, The Netherlands , Balk
  • 10 Witteveen and Bos, Deventer, The Netherlands , Deventer
  • 11 Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Department of Marine Biogeochemistry and Toxicology, Den Burg, The Netherlands , Den Burg
  • 12 University of Queensland, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Brisbane, Australia , Brisbane
  • 13 University of Vienna, Department of Microbial Ecology, Vienna, Austria , Vienna
Published Article
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Publication Date
Sep 04, 2003
DOI: 10.1007/s00253-003-1422-4
Springer Nature


Recently, two fresh water species, "Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans" and "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis", and one marine species, "Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii", of planctomycete anammox bacteria have been identified. "Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii" was discovered in the Black Sea, and contributed substantially to the loss of fixed nitrogen. All three species contain a unique organelle—the anammoxosome—in their cytoplasm. The anammoxosome contains the hydrazine/hydroxylamine oxidoreductase enzyme, and is thus the site of anammox catabolism. The anammoxosome is surrounded by a very dense membrane composed almost exclusively of linearly concatenated cyclobutane-containing lipids. These so-called 'ladderanes' are connected to the glycerol moiety via both ester and ether bonds. In natural and man-made ecosystems, anammox bacteria can cooperate with aerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria, which protect them from harmful oxygen, and provide the necessary nitrite. The cooperation of these two groups of ammonium-oxidising bacteria is the microbial basis for a sustainable one reactor system, CANON (completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite) to remove ammonia from high strength wastewater.

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