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AMP010014A09 in Sus Scrofa Encodes an Analog of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109A, Which Mediates the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid

Authors
  • Chen, Guangxin
  • Fu, Shoupeng
  • Feng, Wenqian
  • Huang, Bingxu
  • Xu, Shiyao
  • Wang, Wei
  • Liu, Juxiong
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Publisher
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
Jul 17, 2017
Volume
42
Issue
4
Pages
1420–1430
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1159/000479206
PMID: 28715817
Source
Karger
Keywords
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Background: Hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2, also called GPR109A) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and is found in humans, rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs, but there are almost no reports of this protein in other species. In this investigation, we speculated that AMP010014A09 (AMP+) is a homologue of GPR109A in swine. Methods: To test this hypothesis, the following experiments were designed: monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of swine were treated with LPS after pretreating with or without β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory proteins were assessed. cAMP levels induced by Forskolin in swine testicular (ST) and IPEC-J2 cells were detected with or without BHBA treatment and following silencing or stable transfection of the AMP+ gene. Results: AMP+ in swine exhibited a high level of homology with HM74A in humans and PUMA-G in mice. BHBA inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β and the inflammatory protein COX-2 in monocytes of swine. BHBA suppressed the Forskolin-induced cAMP level increase in ST cells, but failed to inhibit the accumulation of cAMP after the AMP+ gene was silenced with shRNA by transfecting cells with the pGPU6-GFP-Neo-AMP+-sus-392 plasmid. BHBA had no effect on cAMP levels in IPEC-J2 cells, but significantly inhibited the increase in cAMP induced by Forskolin treatment following transfection of the AMP+ gene into IPEC-J2 cells by a lentivirus vector. Conclusion: Our results indicated that AMP+ encodes a G protein-coupled receptor in Sus scrofa that inhibits cAMP levels and mediates anti-inflammatory effects in swine monocytes.

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