Although urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the most relevant parameter for assessing exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the inability to further elucidate the intra- and inter-individual variability, specificity and kinetics makes it difficult to enhance its value as an exposure predictor. Therefore, this human control study examined the excretion kinetics of urinary 1-OHP after consuming barbecued meat. Two feeding experiments were conducted, with doses of 15 and 30 g of barbecued meat per kg of body weight for experiments 1 and 2, respectively. All voided urine was collected for 7 days and analyzed for 1-OHP. In both experiments, the amounts of urinary 1-OHP excreted was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 12 h post exposure but not at 12-24 h post exposure. Mean percentages of administered pyrene doses excreted as urinary 1-OHP at 0-12 h and 12-24 h post exposure were 3.80 and 0.61% in experiment 1 and 1.66 and 0.38% in experiment 2. Excretion ratio was inversely related to dose. A pattern of diurnal fluctuation (P < 0.05) in 1-OHP excretions was also identified. That is, 1-OHP excretions were smaller in the first half of the day (~0:00-12:00) than in the last half of the day (~12:00-24:00). This study demonstrated that, even at large dietary doses, most of the total urinary excretion of 1-OHP occurs within 12 h. Thus, subjects of occupational or environmental studies need only recall their diets for the current or previous day to diminish the influence from dietary pyrene.