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Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, therapeutic targets for infectious diseases.

Authors
  • Lee, Eun-Young1
  • Kim, Sunghoon2
  • Kim, Myung Hee3
  • 1 Infection and Immunity Research Laboratory, Metabolic Regulation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 2 Medicinal Bioconvergence Research Center, Seoul National University, Suwon 16229, Republic of Korea; College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 3 Infection and Immunity Research Laboratory, Metabolic Regulation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea; KRIBB School of Bioscience, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: [email protected] , (North Korea)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biochemical pharmacology
Publisher
New York, NY : Elsevier Science Inc
Publication Date
Aug 01, 2018
Volume
154
Pages
424–434
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2018.06.009
PMID: 29890143
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Despite remarkable advances in medical science, infection-associated diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. There is a great deal of interest and concern at the rate at which new pathogens are emerging and causing significant human health problems. Expanding our understanding of how cells regulate signaling networks to defend against invaders and retain cell homeostasis will reveal promising strategies against infection. It has taken scientists decades to appreciate that eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) play a role as global cell signaling mediators to regulate cell homeostasis, beyond their intrinsic function as protein synthesis enzymes. Recent discoveries revealed that ubiquitously expressed standby cytoplasmic ARSs sense and respond to danger signals and regulate immunity against infections, indicating their potential as therapeutic targets for infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss ARS-mediated anti-infectious signaling and the emerging role of ARSs in antimicrobial immunity. In contrast to their ability to defend against infection, host ARSs are inevitably co-opted by viruses for survival and propagation. We therefore provide a brief overview of the communication between viruses and the ARS system. Finally, we discuss encouraging new approaches to develop ARSs as therapeutics for infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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