Troponin I (TnI) is the inhibitory subunit of troponin, the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. We have determined the amino acid sequence of TnI from adult bovine cardiac muscle. This protein is a single polypeptide chain of 211 amino acids with an acetylated amino terminus, a calculated molecular weight of 23,975, and a net charge of +17 at neutral pH. There was no evidence for heterogeneity of the sequence. Comparison with other available TnI sequences shows an amino-terminal extension of 27-33 residues which is present in cardiac but not skeletal TnI. The remainder of the polypeptide is common to both cardiac and skeletal TnI. In the amino-terminal half of the common polypeptide, only 29% of the residues are invariant in all sequences. The carboxyl-terminal half (residues 124-210) is much more highly conserved, with 66% invariant residues. Bovine cardiac TnI and rabbit cardiac TnI are very similar in sequence: only 12 of 26 residues are identical in the amino-terminal segments, but the remaining residues of the proteins are 97% identical.