To establish an advantageous method for the production of l-amino acids, microbial isomerization of d- and dl-amino acids to l-amino acids was studied. Screening experiments on a number of microorganisms showed that cell suspensions of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. miyamizu were capable of isomerizing d- and dl-phenylalanines to l-phenylalanine. Various conditions suitable for isomerization by these organisms were investigated. Cells grown in a medium containing d-phenylalanine showed highest isomerization activity, and almost completely converted d- or dl-phenylalanine into l-phenylalanine within 24 to 48 hr of incubation. Enzymatic studies on this isomerizing system suggested that the isomerization of d- or dl-phenylalanine is not catalyzed by a single enzyme, "amino acid isomerase," but the conversion proceeds by a two step system as follows: d-pheylalanine is oxidized to phenylpyruvic acid by d-amino acid oxidase, and the acid is converted to l-phenylalanine by transamination or reductive amination.