Expression of beta-galactosidase in transcriptional fusions with the pps gene (encoding phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP] synthase), the aceBAK operon (encoding malate synthase, isocitrate lyase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase, respectively), and the phs operon (encoding either thiosulfate reductase or a regulatory protein controlling its expression) was studied in Salmonella typhimurium. beta-Galactosidase synthesis in these strains was repressible either by growth in the presence of glucose or by the presence of a fruR mutation, which resulted in the constitutive expression of the fructose (fru) regulon. Five enzymes of gluconeogenesis (PEP synthase, PEP carboxykinase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase) were shown to be repressed either by growth in the presence of glucose or the fruR mutation, while the glycolytic enzymes, enzyme I and enzymes II of the phosphotransferase system as well as phosphofructokinase, were induced either by growth in the presence of glucose or the fruR mutation. Overexpression of the cloned fru regulon genes (not including fruR) resulted in parallel repression of representative gluconeogenic, Krebs cycle, and glyoxylate shunt enzymes. Studies with temperature-sensitive mutants of S. typhimurium which synthesized heat-labile IIIFru proteins provided evidence that this protein plays a role in the regulation of gluconeogenic substrate utilization. Other mutant analyses revealed a complex relationship between fru gene expression and the expression of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes. Taken together, the results suggest that a number of genes encoding catabolic, biosynthetic, and amphibolic enzymes in enteric bacteria are transcriptionally regulated by a complex catabolite repression/activation mechanism which may involve enzyme IIIFru of the phosphotransferase system as one component of the regulatory system.