A protocol has been produced for the study of anaphylactic accidents that occur post-operatively that allows definition of the anaphylactic origin, and so reactions that are mediated by IgE in post-operative accidents. This protocol occurs in two stages, the first is done in the minutes and hours that follow the anaphylactic accident, and the second a month or 6 weeks afterwards. At first, we evaluate the sequential study of the liberation of the mediators of anaphylaxis, plasma histamine, serum tryptase, urinary methylhistamine and, more recently, leucotriene E4. The second study is devoted to reactions that are mediated by IgE, essentially, specific serum IgE, tests of activation of basophils by flow cytometry, measurement of leucotriene C4 and skin tests. A study on 16 subjects has evaluated and validated the protocol and shown a significant level of correspondence of results between the sequential measurement of mediators on one hand and on the other the search for IgE-mediated reactions every time that there was an anaphylactic reaction.