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The Akt proto-oncogene links Ras to Pak and cell survival signals.

Authors
  • Tang, Y
  • Zhou, H
  • Chen, A
  • Pittman, R N
  • Field, J
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of biological chemistry
Publication Date
Mar 31, 2000
Volume
275
Issue
13
Pages
9106–9109
Identifiers
PMID: 10734042
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The Ras oncogene regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and survival through multiple downstream signals. Ras signals through its effector phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase to the Pak protein kinase (p65(pak)), but the steps from Ras to Pak remain to be elucidated. PI3 kinase can stimulate the small G protein, Rac, a direct activator of Pak, as well as the Akt proto-oncogene, a serine-threonine protein kinase. We found that activated Akt stimulated Pak, whereas a dominant negative Akt inhibited Ras activation of Pak in transfection assays. Akt stimulation of Pak was not inhibited by dominant negative mutants of either Rac or Cdc42 suggesting that Akt activated Pak through a GTPase-independent mechanism. We also developed a novel cell-free system to study Ras activation of Pak. In this system Ras activated Pak only in the presence of a crude cell extract but failed to activate Pak when Akt was immunodepleted from the extract. Akt protects cells from apoptosis through phosphorylation of downstream targets such as the Bcl-2 family member, Bad. We found that activated Pak decreased apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of Bad, whereas dominant negative Pak increased apoptosis and decreased phosphorylation of Bad. These studies define a new oncogene-mediated cell survival signal.

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