Air pollution and sea pollution are both impacting human health and all the natural environments on Earth. These complex interactions in the biosphere are becoming better known and understood. Major progress has been made in recent past years for understanding their societal and environmental impacts, thanks to remote sensors placed aboard satellites. This paper describes the state of the art of what is known about air pollution and focuses on specific aspects of marine pollution, which all benefit from the improved knowledge of the small-scale eddy field in the oceans. Examples of recent findings are shown, based on the global observing system (both remote and in situ) with standardized protocols for monitoring emerging environmental threats at the global scale.