Lung cancer is a serious health problem all over the world. Many studies have already proved that air pollution as well as other environmental factors can increase the risk of lung cancer. In this article, the association between lung cancer and air pollution, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, is presented by applying the statistical relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR). Populations in developing areas are prone to be affected by indoor air pollution due to the shortage of clean household energy. Based on epidemiological studies carried out in China, the meta-analysis was applied to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from indoor air pollution, and the results confirm the association between lung cancer and indoor air pollution from coal consumption, cooking oil, and passive smoking for the Chinese population. Since epidemiology results were likely of high uncertainty due to inadequate control of confounding factors, such as diet, education, occupational exposure, spatial discrepancy, and other related variables, more efforts are still needed on the association between lung cancer and air pollution in future.